To segment markets effectively, marketers also require an understanding of other cultures. The smaller the power distance the more a country emphasizes these values. Possessions influence the way people feel about themselves and on the other hand, people’s culture, lifestyle and social settings influence their purchasing decisions. Culture and Consumer Behavior 1. Example; The availability of professional consumer researchers may vary from country to country. In a cross cultural analysis of English, United States, Canadian, and Australian markets, Sommers and Kernan offer four strategies for expanding existing products into new markets. Besides purchasing decisions, culture also affects how consumers use the products they buy and how they dispose of them. Marketers must learn everything that is relevant to the product and product category in the society in which they plan to market, and then they must persuade the members of that society to break with their traditional ways of doing things to adopt the new product. 5.1.3 Entertainment and the Place of Purchase Examples are Sony in the United States, Coca-Cola in Europe and Japan. The first and most important dimension is individualism-collectivism. Especially in times of globalization and internationalization it is very important to develop effective marketing strategies for foreign markets, to define consumption motives, … A comparison between Germany and the US shows that the value of sense of belonging is very important to Germans, but less important to Americans which underlines the American individualistic character. Such analyses can provide marketers with an understanding of the psychological, social and cultural characteristics of the foreign consumers they wish to target, so that they can design effective marketing strategies for the specific national markets involved. Beliefs and values are guides for consumer behavior. Germany however has a slightly smaller power distance index than the US. - Publication as eBook and book The relationship influences marketing practices. The marketer should study the nuances of cultural variances and respond in such a way which a consumer easily understands. The goal of this paper is to explain cultural diversity between the United States of America and Germany and its influence on consumer behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. In this framework we structure the cultural components of the person in terms of consumer attributes and processes, and the cultural components of behavior in terms of consumer behavior do-mains. The fifth group is made up of primitive countries such as the new nations of Africa. Intro Cross-Cultural Consumer behaviour People are different in psychological, social and cultural orientations people fall in segments understanding these segments is very crucial for serving consumers. Traditionally, anthropologists have used cross-cultural research to explore at wide variety of topics. In Marketing in a multicultural world, edited by Janeen A. Costa and Gary J. Bamossy , 26-67. In order to understand why people buy certain products or services, marketers must understand the differences between the consumers of different cultures – „cross-cultural“ differences. Because each of these values vary in importance, each provides an effective basis for segmenting consumer markets which will be the focus in Chapter 4. First, with the buildup of “multinational fever” and the general attractiveness of multinational markets, products or services originating in one country are increasingly being sought out by consumers in other parts of the world. The last chapter will focus on marketing opportunities such as ‘hot’ market segments and trends as well as on marketing mistakes as a failure of understanding differences. This attitude might be positive, negative, and neutral. Figure 3: Distribution of LOV values in different countries (% rating as most important value). Example; The style of family decision making may vary from country to country. There are different ways of marketing. Example; The income, social class, age and sex of target customers may differ dramatically between two different countries. The fact that the brand is foreign makes a difference in the consumer’s mind, sometimes favorable, sometimes not. Here there are extremely wealthy people, a small but growing middle class, and huge numbers of poor. There is an urgent need for more systematic and conceptual cross-cultural analyses of the psychological, social, and cultural characteristics concerning the consumption habits of foreign consumers. On the other hand, the ways in which people live their consumption life can already vary greatly within one country only. Consumers tend to have an attitude when it comes to a particular product being made in a particular country. Google Scholar There are five criteria that distinguish values from beliefs: they are (1) few in numbers, (2) serve as a guide for culturally appropriate behavior, (3) difficult to change and enduring, (4) tied to specific objects, (5) widely accepted by the members of society (Schiffmann, 2003). To enable international marketers to assess the positions their products enjoy in specific foreign markets, the following table presents a five-stage continuum that ranges from mere awareness of a foreign brand in a local market area to complete global identification of the brand; that is the brand is accepted “as is” in almost every market, and consumers do not think about its country of origin-“it belongs.”, A Product Recognition Continuum for Multinational Marketing. Values also determine whether people of a particular culture will be influenced by others in the society. But a controversy has emerged over best means to approach world markets; one argument maintains that markets should be segmented along national boundaries and another contends that markets are sufficiently alike to standardize marketing initiatives. Stage Three: Local consumers accord imported brand “national status”; that is, its national origin is known but does not affect their choice. The spending patterns of a top economy like UK will be completely different then a developing nation. Personal autonomy and individual responsibilities are promoted (Hofstede, 2001). Masculine cultures emphasize achievements, economic growth, business performance and life in order to work. The study of consumer behavior is about much more than just people buying things. These value dimension were the first systematic empirical attempt to compare cultures on an aggregate, group level. While many aspects of human thought and behavior are universal, cultural differences can lead to often surprising differences in how people think, feel, and act. Understanding a country’s mother tongue will be of immense help to the marketer to know the impact of culture on consumer behavior. Cross-cultural consumer analysis is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations are similar or different. How culture is learned and expressed in language, symbols, and rituals. 661 subjects representing different cultures were asked to indicate how they associate anger, envy, fear, and jealousy to a particular color. Today, many companies try to reach their target groups upon these results. This increases marketing failures abroad. Buzzell, citing the economic advantages of standardizing products, packaging, and promotion, cautions that segmentation may still be appropriate where income levels, shopping patterns, language, access to media, and other factors seem to warrant a more narrowly focused approach.

  • Cross-cultural marketing is defined as “the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations are similar or different. “Culture is the lens through which people view products” (Solomon, 1999, p.495). This understanding helps marketers making proper adaptations in their product, pricing, distribution, and promotion policies. The relevant literature form cross-cultural psychology, anthropology, consumer behavior and international marketing is reviewed in an attempt to describe the impact culture has on salient consumer behavior constructs of perception, information processing, … According to  Berkman and Gilson, Cross-cultural research is a methodology for comparing cultures on the basis of similarities and differences as well as studying small segments of a total culture. Germans in contrast tend to avoid new situations and has a much higher uncertainty avoidance index. Example; The benefits sought from a service may differ from country to country. One group of countries was defined as almost classless and contented. A firm might decide either to standardize or localize its product and either standardize or localize its communications program. However Germany has a slightly higher masculinity index. The rule of ‘social distancing’ is now effective in many countries, which literally means people must keep a physical distance from each other (at least 1 meter) in social settings.This strategy is strongly recommended by scientists and it is hoped that it can prevent the rapid transmission of COVID-19.As a result, many shopping malls and retail stores have been forced to shut down. The A consumer’s level of exposure towards foreign goods or lifestyles may influence his buying decisions and preferences. For Feather (1987), values help to structure thought, and play a key role in choices that individuals make. This article reviews the cultural relationships with the self, personality, and attitude, which are the basis of consumer behavior models and branding and advertising strategies. In the middle there are two mixed strategies. Here a newly established class of bureaucrats represents a kind of aristocracy while everyone else seem grouped into a low middle class existence. To determine which cell represents the firm’s best strategy, the marketer must conduct cross-cultural consumer analysis to obtain consumer reactions to alternative product and promotional executions: When looking for success in a foreign market, it has been suggested that a company should remember the 3 P’s- Place, People, and Product. 3.3 The Dynamics of Culture, 4 Lifestyle Segmentation Across Cultures Understanding cross-cultures help marketers to understand values of other cultures which influence their purchase behavior. Remittance and Foreign Exchange Operation of NCC Bank Ltd. The psychologist Milton Rokeach identified two types of values – terminal and instrumental values. Abstract and Figures The world economy is becoming increasingly cross-cultural. Most aspects of consumer behavior are culture-bound. So marketers should conduct extensive cross-cultural research and set multinational strategies accordingly. Differences in language and meaning. To attain a deeper understanding of culture, it is important to understand the underlying set of belief and values that form peoples’ behavior and thinking. It is also transferred from one generation to the next (Ting-Toomey, 1999). If the society values collective activity decisions will be taken in a group.It gives rise to following questions which affect consumer behaviour: Generally, the recent trend in international marketing has veered away from segmentation toward greater standardization of markets. The Hofstede model is used to explain variance. Culture is learned and is shared amongst members of a certain group. Culture is an important factor in determining consumer behavior. Marketers interested in global expansion are especially interested in understanding cross-cultural differences in … “The United States is, without a doubt, the most important country to understand, yet it is the most misunderstood country in the world” (“Release of the Special Issue of the USA 2002”, 2002). Cross-cultural consumer research is increasingly important and essential for the current globalized marketplace. Today, almost all major corporations are actively marketing their products beyond their original homeland borders. Few people go hungry and there is potential for upward mobility, especially at the top end of the upper middle class. Therefore it is important to understand where cultural values are settled, how they change and finally how market segmentation helps to identify them. Because the objective of this paper is to understand the influence of culture on consumer behavior, Schiffmann’s (2003, p.408) definition of culture as “the sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct the consumer behavior of members of a particular society” comes closest to an effective description. For example, in twenty-three different cultures, “black and grey” are considered “bad” while white, blue, and green are perceived as “good”. Examples are CNN news services, Nescafe. how cultures contact! It is about the study of ‘why’ people buy things, about their needs and desires. Vice versa, many Americans miss the target in operating effectively in foreign countries (Ting-Toomey, 1999). marketers should tailor thier marketing mixes to the 4. As these values are not very consumption-specific or product-specific values, the following Chapter will explain some of the core values related to consumer behavior. According to Hofstede (2001) weaker uncertainty stands for greater tolerance of innovative ideas and behavior. ... meaning that they include numerically significant pluralities of traditionally minority populations, or are already majority-minority. The first two chapters of this paper will deal with the conception of culture and refer to the empirical value researches of Geert Hofstede and Milton Rokeach. 5.1 Trends Comparisons are usually made by analyzing the statistical, typological and content aspects of cultures. Language is the most important aspect of culture. Ting-Toomey (1999) explaines culture as an iceberg: Traditions, beliefs and values form the deeper layers of the iceberg which are hidden for the viewer. Conflicts are regarded as natural part of productivity and career change is important. Definition and Objectives of cross-cultural consumer analysis: To determine whether and how to enter foreign markets, marketers need to conduct some form of cross-cultural consumer analysis. Income interferes. 4.2.1 Social milieus They both highly emphasize equality, democracy, individual credibility and informality. This means that all parts must fit together in some logical fashion. a) Culture Culture is the essential character of a society that distinguishes it from other cultural groups. Recognizing the deficiency of definition of culture in cross-cultural studies, this paper presents a conceptualization of culture. Differences in economic and social conditions and family structure. The US is a typical example for a weak uncertainty avoidance culture. 4.1 Models of Market Segmentation 4.2 The Sinus–Milieus These activities are influenced by the emotional, psychological, and behavioral state of the person. Cultural Factors, culture, subculture and social class to be examined under three headings (Durmaz and Jablonski, 2012: 56). Especially in times of globalization and internationalization it is very important to develop effective marketing strategies for foreign markets, to define consumption motives, goals and desires. 3.1 German Core Values The second group was described as affluent, and includes the United States, Canada, and Holland. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Consumer behaviour is the study of the factors that influence people to purchase the product. 4.2.3 Mainstream milieus - Masculinity pertains to societies in which social gender roles are clearly distinct (Hofstede, 2001). People employ values and standards as criteria for evaluation as “good”, “bad”, “must” and ”ought”. Group four consists of revolutionary countries; India and the Philippines are examples. In order to understand why people buy certain products or services, marketers must understand the differences between the consumers of different cultures – „cross-cultural“ differences. 3. The third group is termed countries in transition, such as England, France, and Italy. Where upper class individuals still enjoy special privileges, automobiles may be opulent and expensive. All of these nations sustain a working class of the 19th century variety, but this class is really working at joining the middle class. Frameworks for assessing multinational strategies. Differences in market segmentation opportunities. Some of the important cultural factors are: Cross-cultural study is an extremely important activity for a multinational marketer. Cultural Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior. Again the following table presents a framework that focuses on four marketing strategies available to a firm contemplating doing business on a global basis. Too many marketers contemplating international expansion make the strategic error of believing that if its product is liked by local or domestic consumers, then everyone will like it. Example; Words or concepts may not mean the same in two different countries. Open confrontation and active exchange of different opinions characterize individually oriented countries. The meaning of values can change over time and also when the cultural context shifts. Cross-cultural psychology is a branch of psychology that looks at how cultural factors influence human behavior. Therefore, pushing the boundaries of cross-cultural consumer research to gain a better understanding of consumer behaviour in a multi-cultural environment has created both opportunities and challenges for today‟s marketers. Marketing techniques are ways used to make users aware of the fact that a particular product exists and a new product that was not previously in the market is launching. It changes and develops and is therefore very dynamic. Today, almost all major companies are marketing their products beyond their original homeland borders. What culture is and how it impacts consumer behaviors. Because a significant degree of culture universally exists throughout the world marketing experts urge the more economical approach of viewing several countries one market. 5.1.2 Between Luxury and No-Marketing It signifies the study of the complex buying activities that include purchasing, using, and discarding of the product. Knowing this aspect of a culture helps marketers identifying reference groups that will have bearing on consumer behavior. Moreover consumers all over the world are increasingly eager to try “foreign” products that are popular in different and far-off places. Differences in the perceived benefits of products and services. 5.2 Marketing Mistakes – a Failure to Understand Differences. In what are primarily Scandinavian countries, the middle class predominates and few people are either very rich or very poor. Career stability is more important, conflicts are seen as a negative impact, clear procedures are expected and uncertainty is treated as a threat. (Culture refers to the shared knowledge, practices, and attitudes of groups of people and can include language, customs, and beliefs about what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate.) The field of consumer behavior is young and dynamic. Terminal Values apply to many different cultures whereas the instrumental values are the actions needed to achieve these terminal values (Solomon, 2002). 5. The sociocultural approach often includes cross-cultural research, meaning research that compares individuals in various cultures to see how they differ on important psychological attributes. Definition: The Cultural Factors are the factors that an individual learns at a very early stage of life due to socialization within the family and other key institutions, such as the set of values, preferences, behavior patterns, and perceptions are learned as the individual grows. These include comparing love and courtship patterns and political power. The value of security is very important to both Germany and the US, whereas the values sense of accomplishment and self-respect vary greatly between the two countries. The four possibilities that this decision framework considers range from a company incorporating a global strategy to developing a completely local strategy. The key for success and the challenges to face for companies in any business will be to constantly watch and adapt to the changing cultural values, changing consumption patterns and lifestyles. Culture is contextually based! Assignment on Select the Right Franchise Business, Discuss on Functions of the International Manager, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, Statistical:          what the demographics of a population are, Typological:       what cultural types may be identified, Content:              what kinds of values and norms people accept and live by. 5.1.1 ‘Hot’ Segments The US and Germany can both be regarded as small power distance cultures. 4. Assignment on Cross-cultural Consumer Behavior and Multinational Strategies. Cross-cultural marketing is now table stakes. The market segment will mainly refer to the consumer goods industry of both countries. Varies from region to region and country to county: The consumer behaviour varies across states, … England produces Rolls Royce and Italy Ferrari and Maserati. But in the United States no mass production cars appear in this $20,000-and-up category. Knowledge about the cultural meanings of color, for example, gives marketers some cues to effective product design, advertising and packaging for specific societies. The cultural consumer describes a person who avidly consumes art, books, music, and live cultural events within a society. Cross-cultural consumer analysis is defined as the effort to determine to what extent the consumers of two or more nations are similar or different. Thus it helps marketers to tailor their promotional programs on specific reference group. Because of this, the risk of missing the American target is high. The greater the similarity between nations, the more feasible it is to use relatively similar marketing strategies in each nation. 2. For example, bowing and a strong desire to avoid the loss of face are unified in their manifestation of the importance of respect. To assist in this imposing task, various frameworks have been developed to determine the degree to which marketing and advertising efforts should be either globalized or localized, or mixed or combined. Both Germany and the US are masculine cultures. After assessment, the individual’s cultural profile is pinpointed inside the triangle, showing how close or how far it is to the world’s major cultural groups.

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