[87][80] According to John 20:11–18, Mary, now alone in the garden outside the tomb, saw two angels sitting where Jesus's body had been. [178], In an eastern tradition supported by the western bishop and historian Gregory of Tours (c. 538 – 594), Mary Magdalene is said to have retired to Ephesus in Asia Minor with the virgin Mary, where they both lived out the rests of their lives. [169], The unnamed "sinful woman" in Luke 7:36–50 is never identified as a prostitute[170] and, in Jewish society at the time the gospel was written, "sinful" could have simply meant that she "did not assiduously observe the law of Moses". [61], All four canonical gospels, as well as the apocryphal Gospel of Peter, agree that Jesus's body was taken down from the cross and buried by a man named Joseph of Arimathea. The Eastern Orthodox churches also commemorate her on the Sunday of the Myrrhbearers, the Orthodox equivalent of one of the Western Three Marys traditions. [134] Peter approaches Mary and asks her:[135], "Sister we know that the Savior loved you more than the rest of woman. "[145][143][146] Upon hearing this, Mary instantly fainted, to which Jesus responded by helping her up and telling her, "O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt? De Boer, Esther A., The Gospel of Mary Listening to the Beloved Disciple. All four gospels identify her, either alone or as a member of a larger group of women which includes Jesus's mother, as the first to witness the empty tomb,[2] and the first to witness Jesus's resurrection.[3]. [72][73][74] Instead, the women ran away and told no one, because they were too afraid. Watch a preview of the four-week special event Jesus: His Life, premiering Monday, March 25 at 8/7c. “They are the ones that discovered that he had risen, and that’s significant.”. [10] Mary herself spends the last thirty years of her life alone as a penitent ascetic in a cave in a desert in the French region of Provence. [203], The thirteenth-century Cistercian monk and chronicler Peter of Vaux de Cernay claimed it was part of Catharist belief that the earthly Jesus Christ had a relationship with Mary Magdalene, described as his concubine: "Further, in their secret meetings they said that the Christ who was born in the earthly and visible Bethlehem and crucified at Jerusalem was "evil", and that Mary Magdalene was his concubine – and that she was the woman taken in adultery who is referred to in the Scriptures. In the Gospel of John, Jesus actually appears to Mary Magdalene alone after his Resurrection, and instructs her to tell his disciples of his return (John 20:1-13). [126][127] The text was probably written over a century after the historical Mary Magdalene's death. Johnston, Barbara, "Sacred Kingship and Royal Patronage in the La Vie de la Magdalene: Pilgrimage, Politics, Passion Plays, and the Life of Louise of Savoy" (Florida State), R. Neuman, Dissertation. © 2020 A&E Television Networks, LLC. [253], Mary Magdalene at the foot of the cross during the Crucifixion appears in an eleventh-century English manuscript "as an expressional device rather than a historical motif", intended as "the expression of an emotional assimilation of the event, that leads the spectator to identify himself with the mourners". [195] Mary cries tears of joy[195] and, after taking it, she lies down and dies. [313][314][315][316] If genuine, the papyrus would have dated to sometime between the sixth and ninth centuries. [80] Then the risen Jesus approached her. [145], Most of the earliest Church Fathers do not mention Mary Magdalene at all,[151][10][152] and those who do mention her usually only discuss her very briefly. [154] Origen also preserves a statement from Celsus that some Christians in his day followed the teachings of a woman named "Mariamme", who is almost certainly Mary Magdalene. `Abdu'l-Bahá claimed that Mary traveled to Rome and spoke before the Emperor Tiberius, which is presumably why Pilate was later recalled to Rome for his cruel treatment of the Jews (a tradition also attested to in the Eastern Orthodox Church). Of all the apocryphal material, only some of the sayings in the Gospel of Thomas are worth consideration. [154] A sermon attributed to Hippolytus of Rome (c. 170 – 235) refers to Mary of Bethany and her sister Martha seeking Jesus in the garden like Mary Magdalene in John 20, indicating a conflation between Mary of Bethany and Mary Magdalene. [52] Matthew 27:55–56 lists Mary Magdalene, Mary mother of James and Joseph, and the unnamed mother of the sons of Zebedee (who may be the same person Mark calls Salome). She displayed her hair to set off her face, but now her hair dries her tears. Professor Karen King of Harvard Divinity School answers questions about the fragment, dubbed The Gospel of Jesus's Wife. One was to turn her into a prostitute.”, To cast Mary as the original repentant whore, early church leaders conflated her with other women mentioned in the Bible, including an unnamed woman, identified in the Gospel of Luke as a sinner, who bathes Jesus’s feet with her tears, dries them and puts ointment on them (Luke 7:37-38), as well as another Mary, Mary of Bethany, who also appears in Luke. [261] For centuries, it has been the custom of many Eastern Orthodox Christians to share dyed and painted eggs, particularly on Easter Sunday. Use them in commercial designs under lifetime, perpetual & worldwide rights. Antonio Caldara Maddalena ai piedi di Cristo, oratorio (1700). [69] Nonetheless, he rejects that Jesus could have been interred in an expensive tomb with a stone rolled in front of it like the one described in the gospels,[70] leading him to conclude that Mary and the other women must not have actually seen the tomb. There were apparently hundreds, if not thousands, of followers of Jesus, but we don't know most of their names. For other uses, see, Witness to Jesus's crucifixion and burial, Mary Magdalene's name is mostly given as Μαρία (Maria), but in. I am glad and blythe that St Jerome should say so". Such works often support sensationalist claims about Jesus and Mary Magdalene's relationship. So the fact that she's named is a big deal.”. "[138][139] Peter responds, saying, "Did he really speak with a woman in private, without our knowledge? This idea was also central to The Last Temptation of Christ, the 1955 novel by Greek writer Nikos Kazantzakis, and the later film version of that book, directed by Martin Scorsese. It is not clear, if the text refers to Jesus' or his mother's sister, or whether the intention is to say something else. When the owners of the field come, they will say, 'Let us have back our field.' [221] John Calvin (1509 – 1564) not only rejected the composite Magdalene,[221][218] but criticized Catholics as ignorant for having ever believed in it. Since 2003, tens of millions of readers have devoured Dan Brown’s massively bestselling thriller The Da Vinci Code, the plot of which centered around the longstanding theory that Jesus and Mary Magdalene had children together. [12][9] They are not regarded by bible scholars as reliable sources of information about her life. Other Protestant churches honor her as a heroine of the faith. In 1969, the identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the "sinful woman" was removed from the General Roman Calendar by Pope Paul VI, but the view of her as a former prostitute has persisted in popular culture. They are legendary and mythological. Some argued she was actually Jesus’ wife, or companion. READ MORE: Harvard Professor Concedes 'Gospel of Jesus's Wife' Likely a Fake. [292], Many of the alleged relics of the saint are held in Catholic churches in France, especially at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, where her skull (see above) and the noli me tangere are on display; the latter being a piece of forehead flesh and skin said to be from the spot touched by Jesus at the post-resurrection encounter in the garden. Meyer, Marvin (2004). Soon afterwards he went on through cities and villages, proclaiming and bringing the good news of the kingdom of God. [80][89] She at first mistook him for the gardener,[87][80] but, after she heard him say her name, she recognized him and cried out "Rabbouni!" In Pope Gregory's interpretation, the seven demons expelled from Mary Magdalene by Jesus are transformed into the seven deadly sins of medieval Catholicism,[159][172] leading Mary "to be condemned not only for lust, but for pride and covetousness as well. “Of course, the other response was actually to elevate Mary. [117] The text is badly fragmented, and speculated but unreliable additions are shown in brackets: And the companion of the saviour [was] Mary Magdalene. The crucifixion of Jesus with the Virgin Mary, Saint John and Mary Magdalene. "[121][116], For early Christians, kissing did not have a romantic connotation and it was common for Christians to kiss their fellow believers as a way of greeting. [72][74][82] Casey argues that the reason for this abrupt ending may be because the Gospel of Mark is an unfinished first draft. She turned the mass of her crimes to virtues, in order to serve God entirely in penance. [187], In western Europe, elaborate and conflicting legends began to develop, which claimed that Mary Magdalene had travelled to southern France and died there. [189][190] At first, the existence of the skeleton was merely asserted,[190] but, in 1265, the monks made a spectacular, public show of "discovering" it[190] and, in 1267, the bones were brought before the king of France himself, who venerated them. [116] In a manner very similar to John 19:25–26, the Gospel of Philip presents Mary Magdalene among Jesus' female entourage, adding that she was his koinônos,[117] a Greek word variously translated in contemporary versions as partner, associate, comrade, companion:[118][117], There were three who always walked with the Lord: Mary, his mother, and her sister, and Magdalene, who was called his companion. She had a special status.”, READ MORE: Discovery Shows Early Christians Didn't Always Take the Bible Literally. "[141][139], The Borborites, also known as the Phibionites, were an early Christian Gnostic sect during the late fourth century who had numerous scriptures involving Mary Magdalene,[142][143][144] including The Questions of Mary, The Greater Questions of Mary, The Lesser Questions of Mary, and The Birth of Mary. Surely the savior knows her well. Mary Magdalene is a central figure in later Gnostic Christian writings, including the Dialogue of the Savior, the Pistis Sophia, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, and the Gospel of Mary which many scholars attribute to Mary Magdalene. resurrected jesus wearing a crown of thorns - jesus whipped stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Jesus scourged on the face, c1897. Today, Mary Magdalene is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches, with a feast day celebrated on July 22. Jesus allowed polygamy: Matthew 19 9. One of these texts, known as the Gospel of Philip, referred to Mary Magdalene as Jesus’s companion and claimed that Jesus loved her more than the other disciples. [308] There would have even been precedent for it, since the earlier Italian Renaissance painter Fra Angelico had included her in his painting of the Last Supper. 260. the latter more probable in view of the grammar (negated present imperative: stop doing something already in progress) as well as Jesus' challenge to Thomas a week later (see John 20:24–29[90][82] Jesus then sent her to tell the other apostles the good news of his resurrection. [195] On the last day of her life, Maximin, now the bishop of Aix, comes to her and gives her the Eucharist. [44] The fact that women played such an active and important role in Jesus's ministry was not entirely radical or even unique;[39][41] inscriptions from a synagogue in Aphrodisias in Asia Minor from around the same time period reveal that many of the major donors to the synagogue were women. For every woman who makes herself male shall enter into the kingdom of heaven. [87][80], Because scribes were unsatisfied with the abrupt ending of the Gospel of Mark, they wrote several different alternative endings for it. In 2016 Pope Francis raised the level of liturgical memory on July 22 from memorial to feast. Mary's mention in saying 114, however, has generated considerable controversy:[114], Simon Peter said to them: Let Mary go forth from among us, for women are not worthy of the life. A hotly contested, supposedly ancient manuscript suggests Christ was married. "[210] A document, possibly written by Ermengaud of Béziers, undated and anonymous and attached to his Treatise against Heretics,[211] makes a similar statement:[212], Also they [the Cathars] teach in their secret meetings that Mary Magdalene was the wife of Christ. For these reasons, Mary Magdalene is known in some Christian traditions as the "apostle to the apostles". [318] None of the canonical gospels imply such a thing[319] and, even in the late Gnostic gospels, where Mary is shown as Jesus's closest disciple,[319] the love between them is not sexual. Tell us the words of the Savior which you remember which you know, but we do not, nor have we heard them". This idea is refuted by biblical scholars who primarily use existing Judeo-Christian scriptures as their source. [237] Mary is likewise portrayed as a reformed prostitute in Andrew Lloyd Webber and Tim Rice's 1971 rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar. [295], In 1998, Ramon K. Jusino proposed an unprecedented argument that the "Beloved Disciple" of the Gospel of John is Mary Magdalene. [101] In these apocryphal texts, Mary Magdalene is portrayed as a visionary and leader of the early movement whom Jesus loved more than he loved the other disciples. Finally, in 1969, the Church admitted that the text of the Bible does not support that interpretation. Jesus Mentions 'My Wife' In Ancient Papyrus; Document Deemed Authentic (PHOTOS) By Staff Reporter Apr 10, 2014 10:28 AM EDT An ancient text in which Jesus referred to "my wife" has been accused of being forged, but a recent analysis suggests it's most likely authentic. [39] Ehrman and Schaberg consider it highly improbable that the historical Jesus ever advocated complete equality between the sexes,[45][46] considering that one of the best-attested facts of his life is that all twelve of his chosen apostles were male. [2][157][159] As early as the third century, the Church Father Tertullian (c. 160 – 225) references the touch of "the woman which was a sinner" in effort to prove that Jesus "was not a phantom, but really a solid body. '[Mt 28:6] They are the first to embrace his feet.[cf. Other early documents portray her as Jesus's companion—and even mention kissing. [155][156] Origen merely dismisses this, remarking that Celsus "pours on us a heap of names". Mary's epithet Magdalene may mean that she came from the town of Magdala, a fishing town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. $65.00. [99] He does conclude later, however, that Mary Magdalene must have been one of the people who had an experience in which she thought she saw the risen Jesus,[100] citing her prominence in the gospel resurrection narratives and her absence everywhere else in the gospels as evidence.[100]. This article is about the biblical figure. As the swooning Virgin Mary became more common, generally occupying the attention of John, the unrestrained gestures of Magdalene increasingly represented the main display of the grief of the spectators. [112] In saying 21, Mary herself asks Jesus the perfectly innocuous question, "Whom are your disciples like? gospel of jesus’ wife has same handwriting as fritz’s fake gospel of john fragment The Gospel of Jesus’s Wife is composed in effectively same handwriting as the same owner’s Gospel of John, which scholars and scientists across the board regard as an unequivocal, third-rate forgery. Wanda De Jesus taking a photo. [183][182] In the tenth century, Odo of Cluny (c. 880 – 942) wrote a sermon in which he described Mary as an extraordinarily wealthy noblewoman of royal descent. [15][37] The places where she and the other women are mentioned throughout the gospels strongly indicate that they were vital to Jesus's ministry[38][39][40][41] and the fact that Mary Magdalene always appears first, whenever she is listed in the Synoptic Gospels as a member of a group of women, indicates that she was seen as the most important out of all of them. [142][145][144][146] Epiphanius claims that the Greater Questions of Mary contained an episode in which, during a post-resurrection appearance, Jesus took Mary to the top of a mountain, where he pulled a woman out of his side and engaged in sexual intercourse with her. The overwhelming consensus of scholars, including King herself, is that the fragment is a modern forgery. [222] A massive number of Baroque paintings and sculptures depict the penitent Magdalene,[222][225] often showing her naked or partially naked, with a strong emphasis on her erotic beauty. The version of Mary Magdalene as a prostitute held on for centuries after Pope Gregory the Great made it official in his sixth-century sermon, though neither Orthodoxy nor Protestantism adopted it when those faiths later split from the Catholic Church. If the savior made her worthy, who are you to reject her? [285] `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the founder of the religion, said that she was "the channel of confirmation" to Jesus' disciples, a "heroine" who "re-established the faith of the apostles" and was "a light of nearness in his kingdom". Jesus said: Behold, I shall lead her, that I may make her male, in order that she also may become a living spirit like you males. [91], In a book published in 2006, Ehrman states that "it appears virtually certain" that the stories of the empty tomb, regardless of whether or not they are accurate, can definitely be traced back to the historical Mary Magdalene,[92] pointing out that, in Jewish society, women were regarded as unreliable witnesses and were forbidden from giving testimony in court,[93] so early Christians would have had no motive to make up a story about a woman being the first to discover the empty tomb. The twelve were with him, as well as some women who had been cured of evil spirits and infirmities: Mary, called Magdalene, from whom seven demons had gone out, and Joanna, the wife of Herod's steward Chuza, and Susanna, and many others, who provided for them out of their resources. [227] They were usually located away in wild areas away from the rest of the property[228] and their exteriors were designed to suggest vulnerability.[228]. [180] Modestus, the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 630 until 634, describes a slightly different tradition that Mary Magdalene had come to Ephesus to live with the apostle John following the death of the Virgin Mary. See more ideas about jesus, jesus pictures, pictures of christ. [125] Roughly half the text of the gospel in this manuscript has been lost;[130][131] the first six pages and four from the middle are missing. What she therefore displayed more scandalously, she was now offering to God in a more praiseworthy manner. [244][245][246] Instead, the film portrays her as Jesus's closest disciple[244][245][246] and the only one who truly understands his teachings. [197] Then the governor's wife rises from the dead and tells him that Mary Magdalene has brought her back. Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches generally do not view these writings as part of the Bible. [107] At another point, he tells her, "Well done, Mary. silhouette pigeon flying. [5][6][7] Nonetheless, very little is known about her life. [122][123][d] This tradition is still practiced in many Christian congregations today and is known as the "kiss of peace". READ MORE: The Bible Says Jesus Was Real. [194][195] Miraculously, however, the boat washes ashore at Marseille in southern France. [145][146] Then, upon ejaculating, Jesus drank his own semen and told Mary, "Thus we must do, that we may live. [239][236][240] In Superstar, Mary describes her sexual attraction to Jesus in the song "I Don't Know How to Love Him", which shocked many of the play's original viewers. [111], In the ancient world, it was almost universally believed that women were inferior to men[110] and that they were, in essence, "imperfect men" who had not fully developed. Before he finished speaking, the egg in her hand turned a bright red and she continued proclaiming the Gospel to the entire imperial house. [12][13][14], Mary Magdalene's epithet Magdalene (ἡ Μαγδαληνή; literally "the Magdalene") most likely means that she came from Magdala,[15][16][1][b] a village on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee that was primarily known in antiquity as a fishing town. 1–4", "39 Articles of Religion – XXII. [273] In his apostolic letter Mulieris Dignitatem ("On the dignity and vocation of women", parts 67–69) dated August 15, 1988, Pope John Paul II dealt with the Easter events in relation to the women being present at the tomb after the Resurrection, in a section entitled 'First Witnesses of the Resurrection': The women are the first at the tomb. This resulted in a widespread belief that she was a repentant prostitute or promiscuous woman. What Other Proof Exists? [73][74][83] In Luke's account, Jesus never appears to the women,[73][74][84] but instead makes his first appearance to Cleopas and an unnamed "disciple" on the road to Emmaus. [33][28][29] Bruce Chilton, a scholar of early Christianity, states that the reference to the number of demons being "seven" may mean that Mary had to undergo seven exorcisms, probably over a long period of time, due to the first six being partially or wholly unsuccessful. Following this, Jesus continues his explanation with a parable about the owner of a house and a thief, ending with the common rhetoric, "Whoever has ears to hear let him hear". [246] The film, which described as having a "strongly feminist bent",[245] was praised for its music score and cinematography,[247] its surprising faithfulness to the Biblical narrative,[245] and its acting,[245][244] but was criticized as slow-moving,[244][245][247] overwritten,[247] and too solemn to be believable. $5.00 shipping. It is widely accepted among secular historians that, like Jesus, Mary Magdalene was a real historical figure. [257], According to Robert Kiely, "No figure in the Christian Pantheon except Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and John the Baptist has inspired, provoked, or confounded the imagination of painters more than the Magdalene". [288] Indeed he claimed that she surpassed all the men of her time,[289] and that "crowns studded with the brilliant jewels of guidance" were upon her head. After the Resurrection, He appeared first to her. HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. London: Continuum, 2006 (2005). [151][152] The sermon also explicitly identifies Mary Magdalene and the other women as "apostles". also Mk 16:9 emphasizes the special role of Mary Magdalene. [Christ] loved Mary more than all the disciples, and used to kiss her often on the mouth. [47] Nonetheless, Jesus's ministry did bring women greater liberation than they would have typically held in mainstream Jewish society. [190] On December 9, 1279, an excavation ordered by Charles II, King of Naples at Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume, Provence, led to the discovery of another purported burial of Mary Magdalene. Jesus married the prostitute Mary Magdalene and had children, according to a manuscript almost 1,500 years old unearthed at the British Library. [244][247] It was also criticized by many Christians, who were offended by the film's use of extracanonical source material. [73][74][83] Then they went and told the eleven remaining apostles, who dismissed their story as nonsense. The identification of Mary Magdalene with Mary of Bethany and the unnamed "sinful woman" was a major controversy in the years leading up to the Reformation and some Protestant leaders rejected it. When a blind man and one who sees are both together in darkness, they are no different from one another. They said to him, "Why do you love her more than all of us?" [181][182] Stories about noble saints were popular during this time period;[181] accordingly, tales of Mary Magdalene's wealth and social status became heavily exaggerated. [188] The widespread artistic representations of Mary Magdalene in tears are the source of the modern English word maudlin,[250][251][252] meaning "sickeningly sentimental or emotional". [12][9][103] Sanders summarizes the scholarly consensus that: "... very, very little in the apocryphal gospels could conceivably go back to the time of Jesus. She is never mentioned in any of the Pauline epistles or in any of the general epistles. [155], Mary Magdalene has the reputation in Western Christianity as being a repentant prostitute or loose woman; however, these claims are not supported by the canonical gospels, which at no point imply that she had ever been a prostitute or in any way notable for a sinful way of life. [193] Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume gradually displaced Vézelay in popularity and acceptance. [2][157][158] The misconception likely arose due to a conflation between Mary Magdalene, Mary of Bethany (who anoints Jesus's feet in John 11:1–12), and the unnamed "sinful woman" who anoints Jesus's feet in Luke 7:36–50. [72], According to Matthew 28:1–10, Mary Magdalene and "the other Mary" went to the tomb. After Jesus’s crucifixion—which she witnessed along with several other women from the foot of the cross—and after all his male disciples had fled, Mary Magdalene also played a key role in the story of the Resurrection. [177][216] Various authors published a flurry of books and pamphlets in response, the vast majority of which opposed Lefèvre d'Étaples. Mary Magdalene, sometimes called Mary of Magdala, or simply the Magdalene or the Madeleine, was a woman who, according to the four canonical gospels, traveled with Jesus as one of his followers and was a witness to his crucifixion and its aftermath. Despite—or perhaps because of—Mary Magdalene’s clear importance in the Bible, some early Western church leaders sought to downplay her influence by portraying her as a sinner, specifically a prostitute. Beautiful Vintage Sacred Heart Of Jesus Original Picture . Get the best deals on Jesus Picture when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. [180], Starting in early High Middle Ages, writers in western Europe began developing elaborate fictional biographies of Mary Magdalene's life, in which they heavily embellished upon the vague details given in the gospels. [52] Mark 15:40 lists the names of the women present as Mary Magdalene; Mary, mother of James; and Salome. [72][73][74] An earthquake occurred and an angel dressed in white descended from Heaven and rolled aside the stone as the women were watching. [262], During the Counter Reformation and Baroque periods (late 16th and 17th centuries), the description "penitent" was added to the indication of her name on her feast day, July 22. [204] They were sometimes thought to be the couple at the Wedding at Cana, though the Gospel accounts say nothing of the ceremony being abandoned. [28][29] Consequently, her devotion to Jesus on account of this healing must have been very strong. In 591 A.D., Pope Gregory the Great solidified this misunderstanding in a sermon: “She whom Luke calls the sinful woman, whom John calls Mary [of Bethany], we believe to be the Mary from whom seven devils were ejected according to Mark. It is claimed that the equivalent of the phrase apostolorum apostola appeared already in the 9th century. [9] The text does not claim to have been written by her and its author is, in fact, anonymous. [36], Because Mary is listed as one of the women who were supporting Jesus's ministry financially, she must have been relatively wealthy. In 2012 scholar Karen King announced the academic discovery of a lifetime: a scrap of papyrus, purportedly from the early days of Christianity, in which Jesus refers to a woman as "my wife… [115], The Gospel of Philip, dating from the second or third century, survives in part among the texts found in Nag Hammadi in 1945. [49] According to Ehrman, this idea would have probably been particularly appealing and empowering to women of the time, such as Mary Magdalene, who may have felt oppressed by traditional attitudes to gender roles. [309] Numerous works were written in response to the historical inaccuracies in The Da Vinci Code,[310][311] but the novel still exerted massive influence on how members of the general public viewed Mary Magdalene. [117] Ehrman explains that, in the context of the Gospel of Philip, the kiss of peace is used as a symbol for the passage of truth from one person to another[124] and that it is not in any way an act of "divine foreplay". [31] The dialogue consists of a conversation between Jesus, Mary and two apostles - Thomas the Apostle and Matthew the Apostle. [264][265][266], According to Darrell Bock, the title of apostola apostolorum first appears in the 10th century,[161] but Katherine Ludwig Jansen says she found no reference to it earlier than the 12th, by which time it was already commonplace. [113][103] Two of the sayings reference a woman named "Mary", who is generally regarded as Mary Magdalene. The statement that Mary had been possessed by seven demons is repeated in Mark 16:9,[31] part of the "longer ending" of that gospel – this is not found in the earliest manuscripts, and is actually a second-century addition to the original text, possibly based on the Gospel of Luke.

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